15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (2023)

The density (more precisely the volumetric mass density) of a substance is its mass per unit volume (expressed in kg/m3). It is a unique physical property of an object that shows how densely packed matter is in that object.

Solid materials like iron and platinum have densely packed particles. In liquids, particles can slide around each other. Gases, on the other hand, contain particles that are free to move in all directions.

The densest object observed in space is a neutron star. They have densities between3,7 × 1017To5,9 × 1017Kilograms per cubic meter, that is2,6 × 1014To4,1 × 1014times denser than our sun. For comparison, a teaspoon of neutron star material would have a mass of about 60,5 × 1012, which is almost 1,000 times the mass of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

But what about the earth? What is the densest material on Earth and why are they important? let's find out


15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (1)Image courtesy: John Chapman

density: 10,28 g/cm3

This may be the first time you are hearing about the element called molybdenum. First of all, it belongs to the group of transition metals with atomic number 42. Of course, it does not occur in pure metallic form; it only exists in oxidation states in various minerals.

Most molybdenum compounds have high melting points and low solubility in water. They are used extensively in alloys, electrodes and catalysts.

Molybdenum is commonused inSteel because it increases the strength, hardness and toughness of the alloy. Almost all ultra high strength steels with a yield strength of at least 300,000 psi consist of 0.25 to 8% molybdenum.

It is also used as a catalyst in petroleum refining. In the field of biochemistry, it is used as a bacterial catalyst to split atmospheric molecular nitrogen.

And because molybdenum can withstand very high temperatures without softening or expanding, it's also used to make aircraft and rocket parts, industrial engines, and electrical contacts.

14. Silber

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (2)

density: 10,49 g/cm3

Silver is almost half as dense as gold, which means that one gram of silver would be almost twice the volume of one gram of gold. While not as impressive as gold or platinum, it has many exceptional properties.

For example, silver has the highest thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. It occurs in the earth's crust in the free elemental form or in minerals such as chlorargyrite and argentite.

Silver has always been valued as one of the most important minerals on earth, and it still is today. It was used not only to make currency, but also ornaments, tableware, and modern electronic products such as solar panels.

Because it has high thermal and electrical conductivity, it is used extensively in the electronics industry to develop conductors and coatings.

13. Lead

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (3)

density: 11,34 g/cm3

Lead is denser than most common materials and has the highest atomic number of any stable substance. It is soft and malleable and has a relatively low melting point. Along with sulphur, lead is one of the most common elements on earth.

Lead's high atomic weight and close-packed, face-centered cubic structure give it a density of 11.34 grams per centimeter cube, which is higher than common metals like copper, iron, and zinc.

It is now a generally accepted fact that lead was present in humans as early as 6000 BC. B.C. and was probably used for smelting metal. The ancient Egyptians were the first to use lead as a consumer good. The ancient Chinese, on the other hand, used it as currency.

In the 21st century, lead plays an important role in many industries (including construction) due to its high density and extreme resistance to corrosion.

These properties have beenexploitedin numerous applications. Lead is used as a barrier to absorb sound, vibration and radiation. And because it doesn't have natural resonant frequencies, it's used as a sound-absorbing layer in floors, ceilings, and walls of recording studios.

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12. Thorium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (4)A dull blank Thorium | Wikimedia Commons

density: 11,7 g/cm3

Thorium, named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder, is a moderately radioactive metal and its known isotopes are unstable. This naturally occurring radioactive metal is found in water, rock and soil.

It is about three times as common as uranium in the earth's crust. There may be more unused energy available from thorium in the Earth's crust than from combined uranium and fossil fuel sources. Most of the Earth's internal heat has been attributed to thorium and uranium.

According to the World Nuclear Association, India has thelargest thorium reserveworldwide, followed by Brazil, Australia and the USA.

While thorium is harder than other radioactive materials like plutonium and uranium, it is less dense than both. Its properties vary depending on the level of impurities found in the sample. The usualpollutionis thorium dioxide - even the purest samples contain about 0.1% of the dioxide.

Today, thorium is used to improve the strength of magnesium, to control the grain size of tungsten in electric lamps, to coat tungsten wire in electrical instruments, and to make refractory ceramics. In addition, numerous thorium reactors were built to replace uranium in nuclear reactors.

11. Rhodium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (5)

density: 12,41 g/cm3

Discovered by English chemist William Wollaston in the early 1800s, rhodium is known for its extreme corrosion resistance and chemically inert properties.

It is one of the rarest substances in the earth's crust, containing 0.0002 parts per million. This rarity affects its price in the market as well as its use in commercial applications.

Although a large amount of rhodium is derived from platinum and other platinum group elements, at least one of its isotopes (103 Rh) occurs naturally. Surprisingly, it wasrecognizedin some potatoes, with concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 30 parts per million.

It has a lower density and a higher melting point compared to platinum. It is unaffected by many acids (including nitric acid), but is readily soluble in aqua regia.

Today it is mostly used as a catalyst in TWC or three-way catalytic converters (emission control systems) in petrol or diesel engines as they help to minimize nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

In nuclear reactors, rhodium detectors are used to determine the neutron flux level. It is also alloyed with palladium and platinum to improve hardness and corrosion resistance.

10. Mercury

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (6)

density: 13,53 g/cm3

Mercury is a pretty interesting element on the periodic table. It is one of the two solid elements that becomes liquid at normal room temperature and pressure, the other is bromine. Its melting and boiling points are -38.8 °C and 356.7 °C.

Its density is about 13.5 times that of water, so a small amount of mercury feels surprisingly heavy. And because it has high surface tension, it forms almost spherical beads on glass. When it goes from liquid to solid, it changes volume by almost 4% (from 13.69 g/cm3bis 14,184 g/cm3).

Because mercury expands and contracts with temperature, it is used in pressure gauges, barometers, thermometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, and various other devices. However, its use in sphygmomanometers and thermometers has largely been phased out due to its toxic nature.

Today it is mainly used for electronic applications and the manufacture of industrial chemicals. For example, gaseous mercury is used in fluorescent lamps, mercury(II) chloride is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and solid mercury(II) sulfide is used as a pigment in rubber, plastic, and paint.

9. Tantalus

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (7)Tantalit-Mineral

density: 16.69 g/cm3

Formerly known as tantalum, it belongs to the group of refractory metals that make up a small proportion of various types of alloys. It is dense, stretchy and very conductive to electricity and heat.

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Solid tantalum has a body-centered cubic crystal structure with a Young's modulus of 186 GPa and a yield strength of 331 MPa. Although the metal is very hard, it is known for its resistance to corrosion – even at temperatures below 150°C, tantalum does not react with aggressive aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids).

It makes up 1 or 2 parts per million of the earth's crust by weight. It is usually found in minerals such as columbite, tantalite, and coltan.

It's hard, rare, and very resistant to corrosion, making it the perfect material for high-performance capacitors. It is also used in surgical instruments and body implants due to its abilityconnect directly tohard tissue in the human body.

In fact, it was used by NASA to shield components of Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and other spacecraft from cosmic radiation. Due to its impressive oxidation resistance and high melting point, it is used in the construction of vacuum furnace parts, valve bodies, and thermowells.

Additionally, it is occasionally used in luxury watch brands including Panerai, Omega, Hublot, and Journe.

8. Career

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (8)An ingot of enriched uranium

density: 19.1 g/cm3

Like thorium, uranium is weakly radioactive. It occurs naturally in three isotopes: uranium-238, uranium-235, and more rarely uranium-234. While it is found in low concentrations in rock, water, and soil, it is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.

The existence of such an element was first discovered in 1789; however, its radioactive properties were not discovered until 1896 by Eugène-Melchior Péligot, and its practical use first came in 1934 after the Manhattan Project.

The metal is denser than lead and tantalum but slightly less dense than gold and tungsten. Due to its unique properties, it is often used in high-density penetrators in the military sector.

depleted uranium(which is less radioactive) can be alloyed with other metals such as molybdenum or titanium, allowing it to be used as a shielding material for storing and transporting radioactive substances.

Although depleted uranium is less radioactive, it is dense enough to stop radiation from powerful sources like radium. And because it can be machined and cast with ease at relatively low cost, it is preferred over similarly dense materials.

7. Wolfram

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (9)
Mineral Wolframit

density:19,25 g/cm3

Tungsten is extracted from rare minerals such as scheelite and wolframite. It was first identified as an element in 1781 and classified as a metal in 1783.

Tungsten has the highest melting point (other than carbon), highest tensile strength, and highest boiling point of any known element. While pure single crystal tungsten is ductile and can be cut with harder metal, polycrystalline tungsten is inherently brittle and difficult to machine.

Some of the most common applications include x-ray tubes, filaments, welding electrodes, radiation shielding and super alloys. Some tungsten compounds are used as catalysts in the manufacture of industrial chemicals.

Recently, tungsten has become popular in the 3D printing industry. Tungsten carbide is used to build 3D printer nozzles. Its high thermal conductivity and wear resistanceimprovedthe print quality of abrasive filaments.

In addition, metallic tungsten is used in jewelry as an alternative to platinum or gold. Because it is harder and less likely to cause allergic reactions than gold alloys, it can be used to make rings, necklaces and bracelets with a brushed finish.

The largest producer of tungsten is currently China (66,000 tons per year), followed by Vietnam (4,500 tons) and Russia (2,400 tons).

6. Gold

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (10)Gold-plated James Webb Space Telescope

density: 19,30 g/cm3

Gold is one of the most precious, loved and desired materials on earth. It has been used for jewelry, coins, and other arts throughout history.

According to various studies, gold was formed from supernova nucleosynthesis and from the collision of neutron starsin distant space.

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On Earth, it occurs in natural rocks formed billions of years ago. It mostly occurs as tiny (microscopic) particles embedded in rock, typically along with sulfide minerals or quartz. Also the oceans of the earthcontainVery small amounts of gold - in the Atlantic and North Pacific there is approximately ten grams of gold for every billion tons of ocean water.

Because gold has high resistance and high electrical conductivity, it is used to make electrical connectors for all types of computing equipment. It is also used for making colored glass, dental restoration and infrared shielding.

As with all other metals, gold's density decreases as it gets hotter. Just below its melting point (1064 °C), its density is reduced to 18.31 g/cm3. Just above this temperature, the density of molten gold reduces to 17.19 g/cm3.

Have you ever wondered why you always get impure gold when you buy jewelry? Well, that's because pure (24k) gold is soft. To make it more durable and stronger, other metals like copper and silver are added, so it becomes contaminated in the process.

When gold is alloyed with other metals, the overall density of the alloy decreases. The 18k gold with an equal amount of copper and silver has a density of 15.4 g/cm3, while 9 carat gold has a density of 11 g/cm3.

Accordinglystatesman, the United States has about 3,000 tons of gold reserves in mines. Australia holds the largest share of the world's gold mining reserves. It accounts for 11,000 tons of gold, followed by Russia (6,800 tons).

5. Plutonium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (11)Exposed plutonium (pyrophoricity)

density: 19,85 g/cm3

Plutonium is the densest radioactive element on earth. It was first isolated in aUniversity of California laboratory in 1940when researchers detonated the uranium-238 in a giant cyclotron.

Plutonium has a total of seven allotropes with densities ranging from 16 to 18.6 g/cm3.

Unlike most elements on the periodic table, plutonium isdensity increasesif by 2.5% when it melts. However, the density of the molten plutonium decreases with temperature. Near its melting point, it has relatively high viscosity and surface tension than other metals.

This deadly element was first used on a large scale in the Manhattan Project - a significant amount of plutonium was used to detonate a nuclear weapon (dubbed "Fat Man") in Nagasaki, Japan. After World War II, its use was restricted to producing commercial nuclear power only.

Today, about 35% of the energy produced in nuclear power plants comes from plutonium. It iseducatedin nuclear power plants from uranium-238 as a by-product.

In particular, the isotope plutonium-238 emits a tremendous amount of thermal energy with small amounts of neutron and gamma rays. A kilogram of plutonium-238 can generate almost 570 watts of heat. For this reason, it is used to power critical equipment that needs to work for 50 to 70 years without maintenance, such as: B. Spacecraft.

Read:15 Fascinating Facts About Uranium | A weakly radioactive metal

4. Rhenium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (12)Rhenium is abundant in molybdenite

density: 21,2 g/cm3

Rhenium, named after the river Rhine in Germany, was discovered in 1925 by three German scientists. It has the highest boiling point, except for carbon and tungsten. It also has the highest boiling point and third highest melting point of any stable element at 5596 °C.

One of the densest elements on Earth, it has a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. At normal temperature and pressure, it does not react with nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, aqua regia and alkali.

Rhenium does not occur freely in nature. It isextractedfrom porphyry molybdenum deposits and other minerals, usually in very low concentrations averaging 0.001 parts per million.

Like other platinum group metals, rhenium is a precious earth element and its alloys are unique, with high melting points and impressive mechanical properties.

Because of these unique properties, rhenium alloys are used in jet engine exhaust nozzles and turbine blades. It is also used as a catalyst for isomerization and hydrogenation. In addition, molybdenum-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium alloys are used in heating elements, welding rods, semiconductors, metallic coatings and X-ray anodes.

3. Platinum

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (13)Wikimedia Commons

density: 21,45 g/cm3

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Platinum is one of the rarest earth metals with an average abundance of 5 micrograms per kilogram. It occurs naturally in the earth's crust and in some copper and nickel ores.

The element is also one of the least reactive metals, showing excellent corrosion resistance even at high temperatures. Because it does not react with other materials under high temperatures and pressures, it is often found as native platinum.

Although unaffected by water and air, it dissolves in hot concentrated sulfuric and phosphoric acids and hot aqua regia.

Although dense, pure platinum is soft and easily damaged (just like gold). That's why it ishardenedby mixing with other metals such as palladium, ruthenium, rhodium and iridium. Platinum-ruthenium alloy, for example, has a high gloss and does not tarnish.

In addition to jewelry, platinum is used in vehicle emission control equipment, dental equipment, laboratory equipment, electrodes, catalytic converters, and turbine engines.

About 80% of all platinum is produced in South Africa. The country produces 130 tons every year. Russia is in second place with an annual production capacity of 19 tons.

2. Iridium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (14)

density:22,56 g/cm3

Iridium is the second densest element and one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust. It was discovered in 1803 by the English chemist Smithson Tennant in platinum ore residues.

It has two naturally occurring, stable isotopes: iridium-191 and iridium-193. To date, more than 37 radioisotopes have been synthesized.

Iridium also has the most corrosion-resistant properties of any metal, even at extreme temperatures near 2,000°C. Under normal temperature and pressure, it will not be affected by base, acid or most strong chemicals. These properties make iridium a valuable transition metal.

Because iridium is eight times stronger and six times harder than platinum, it is primarily used to make high-performance spark plugs. While copper spark plugs can last 20,000 miles, platinum electrodes have a life expectancy of around 100,000 miles and iridium spark plugs can last 25% longer.

It can also be used as an electrode for the production of chlorine (in the chlor-alkali process) and as a crucible for the recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures.

In addition, current display technology, especially OLED screens,UsedIridium compounds to create bright and vibrant colors.

1. Osmium

15 densest materials on earth | Volumetric Mass Density - RankRed (15)

density: 22,59 g/cm3

Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element on earth. It is also among the rarest elements, making up 50 parts per trillion of the Earth's crust.

This off-white metal is twice as dense as lead. It is very hard, brittle and has thefourth highest melting pointof all elements (after carbon, tungsten and rhenium). Its bulk modulus is extremely high, ranging from 395 to 462 GPa, which is comparable to diamond.

These properties make osmium difficult to machine, shape, or work, even at high temperatures.

While pure osmium does not occur naturally, its native alloys are found with platinum group metals. It was first discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1803. He discovered the element together with iridium in the aqua regia insoluble residues of platinum ores.

Due to the extreme toxicity and volatility of osmium oxide, the element is rarely used in its pure form. It is usually alloyed with other platinum group metals for high wear applications. These alloys are used to make fountain pen nibs, electrical contacts and instrument pivots.

Read:20 rarest and most expensive materials in the world

frequently asked Questions

Is diamond the hardest material on earth?

No. Researchers have discovered six materials that are harder than diamonds. These are graphene, buckypaper, palladium microalloy glass, dyneema, lonsdaleit and wurtzite boron nitride.

Relative to thickness, graphene is the strongest material known to man. It is a single layer of carbon atoms tightly bound in a hexagonal lattice nanostructure. It has an exceptional intrinsic tensile strength of 19,000,000 psi andElastic modulus of nearly 150,000,000 psi.

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Read:The 10 Hardest Minerals in the World | On the Mohs scale

What is the most expensive liquid in the world?

Onasemnogene abeparvovec is currently the most expensive drug available in liquid form. It is used to treat a rare neuromuscular condition called spinal muscular atrophy. A single dose (5.5ml) costs $2.125 million.

Read:The 16 most expensive liquids in the world


What is the densest material on Earth? ›

At the modest temperatures and pressures of Earth's surface, the densest known material is the metallic element osmium, which packs 22 grams into 1 cubic centimetre, or more than 100 grams into a teaspoonful.

What is the density of the densest material? ›

Most Dense Element

Under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, osmium is the element with the highest density. Its density is 22.59 g/cm3. At high pressure, iridium becomes the densest element, with a density of 22.75 g/cm3. Osmium and iridium are both metals.

What is the hardest and densest material? ›

Osmium (3920–4000 MPa)

In fact, it is the densest, naturally occurring element on Earth with 22.59 g/cm3. This is also why Osmium does not melt until 3033 °C, a temperature that makes it difficult to work with the metal.

What are dense materials examples? ›

Density Examples

Iron, platinum, and lead are examples of dense materials. Many types of rock and minerals are examples of dense material.

What are examples of high density materials? ›

Some examples of very dense materials are lead, gold, brass, most metals, and rocks such as granite. Typically solids are denser than liquids, and liquids are denser than gases.

What are the 3 most dense elements? ›

The densest gas element is either radon (monatomic), xenon (which forms Xe2 rarely), or possibly Oganesson (element 118). Oganesson may, however, be a liquid at room temperature and pressure. Under ordinary conditions, the least dense element is hydrogen, while the densest element is either osmium or iridium.

What is the least densest material on earth? ›

Aerographene or graphene aerogel is, as of April 2020, the least dense solid known, at 160 g/m3 (0.0100 lb/cu ft; 0.16 mg/cm3; 4.3 oz/cu yd), less than helium. It is approximately 7.5 times less dense than air.

What is the densest layer of earth and why? ›

The inner core is at the center of the Earth because it is the densest, made of solid iron and nickel.

What is the heaviest and densest metal? ›

Osmium is one of the heaviest materials on earth, weighing twice as much as lead per teaspoon. Osmium is a chemical element in the platinum group metals; it's often used as alloys in electrical contacts and fountain pen nibs.

What are the 5 hardest Earth materials? ›

  • Diamond. Unmatched in its ability to resist being scratched, this much-loved gemstone ranks the highest in terms of hardness. ...
  • Graphene. ...
  • Spider silk. ...
  • Carbon/carbon composite. ...
  • Silicon carbide. ...
  • Nickel-based super-alloys.
Nov 23, 2010

What is the 2 hardest material on Earth? ›

Boron nitride

c-BN is chemically and thermally stable, and is commonly used today as a superhard machine tool coating in the automotive and aerospace industries. But cubic boron nitride is still, at best, just the world's second hardest material with a Vickers hardness of around 50 GPa.

What is the top 5 strongest metal? ›

The five strongest metals
  • Osmium. One of the less well-known metals on the list, osmium is a bluish white colour, extremely tough and has a melting point of 3030 degrees celsius. ...
  • Steel. ...
  • Chromium. ...
  • Titanium. ...
  • Tungsten.

What are 2 examples of density? ›

Density is commonly expressed in units of grams per cubic centimetre. For example, the density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimetre, and Earth's density is 5.51 grams per cubic centimetre.

What is an example of mass density? ›

For example, a sponge ball starts with a particular density. If you were to squeeze the ball in your hand, its weight remains the same; however, its volume changes as it is being compressed. As the same mass is contained in a smaller volume, based on ρ = M/V, its density will increase.

What material is denser than water? ›

Since clay is more dense than water, a ball of clay sinks in water, no matter how big or small the ball of clay is.

What are the 3 types of density? ›

There is arithmetic density, physiological density, and agricultural density.

What material has a density of 1? ›

Note that the density of pure water is defined to be 1 gram per cubic centimeter (or, g/ml).

What are the top 5 strongest elements? ›

What are the top 5 strongest elements?
  • #8 Nanospheres / Nano-Kevlar. ...
  • #7 Diamond. ...
  • #6 Wurtzite Boron Nitride. ...
  • #5 Lonsdaleite. ...
  • #4 Dyneema. ...
  • #3 Metallic Glass. ...
  • #2 Buckypaper. ...
  • #1 Graphene. One-atom-thick sheets of carbon are 200 times stronger than steel.

What is the densest common metal? ›

Osmium is the most dense metal! Many people are familiar with lead (11.3 kg/L), but osmium is twice as dense (22.6 kg/L)! Each liter (about 1/4 gallon) of osmium weighs 22.6 kg (50 lbs).

Where are the most dense elements on Earth? ›

It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element. When experimentally measured using X-ray crystallography, it has a density of 22.59 g/cm3.

What is least dense to most dense? ›

The first chemical element with the lowest density is Hydrogen and the highest density is Osmium.

Which is the lowest densest and heaviest layer? ›

Complete answer:

The solid metal inner core is the densest layer, the mantle is intermediately dense, and the lithosphere, particularly the continental lithosphere, is the least dense layer. The crust is the thinnest and least dense layer in comparison to the other layers.

What is the 2nd most dense layer of the Earth? ›

The layers of the solid Earth from least dense to most dense are: lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core. 2.

What are the densities of the Earth's layers? ›

INNER CORE: Earth's inner core has the highest density at 12.9 g/cm3. OUTER CORE: Next, the outer core has a density of about 11.0 g/cm3. LOWER MANTLE: The lower mantle has a significantly lower density of about 5.0 g/cm3. UPPER MANTLE: This is followed by the upper mantle with a density of 3.9 g/cm3.

Which of the Earth's layers has the greatest density quizlet? ›

Scientists now understand that the Earth consists of layers, with the densest materials in the core.

What are the 4 heavy metals? ›

Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure.

What are the big 4 heavy metals? ›

This webinar provides health care practitioners with an overview of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) top four toxic metals: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury.

What metal is denser than water? ›

Mercury is a very dense, heavy, silver-white metal that is a liquid at room temperature. (For more information about mercury, click here.) Mercury has a density of 13.5 g/mL, which is about 13.5 times denser than water (1.0 g/mL), so a small amount of mercury like this feels unexpectedly heavy.

What's stronger than a diamond? ›

Scientists have found a mineral stronger than diamond Scientists have found a mineral stronger than diamond. They say lonsdaleite could be used to fortify industrial tools like drill bits and saw blades - AND teach us about the evolution of earth.

Is there anything harder than diamond? ›

It is well-known since the late 20th-century that there's a form of carbon that's even harder than diamonds: carbon nanotubes. By binding carbon together into a hexagonal shape, it can hold a rigid cylindrical-shaped structure more stably than any other structure known to humankind.

What metal is stronger than diamond? ›

(PhysOrg.com) -- Currently, diamond is regarded to be the hardest known material in the world. But by considering large compressive pressures under indenters, scientists have calculated that a material called wurtzite boron nitride (w-BN) has a greater indentation strength than diamond.

What stone is harder than diamond? ›

That hexagonal structure makes the stone 58% stronger than regular diamonds. Lonsdaleite was found in a meteorite that scientists say came from a dwarf planet that was billions of years old. An asteroid crashed into that planet, releasing pressure that caused the stone to form.

Is Obsidian harder than a diamond? ›

The hardest mineral on the scale, diamond, is given a hardness rating of 10. Since obsidian is rated at 5-6 on Moh's Hardness Scale, it is not stronger than a diamond; it's softer than a diamond. The diamond is one of the hardest natural substances known to scientists.

Is Tungsten stronger than a diamond? ›

Tungsten measures between 8 and 9 on the Mohs hardness scale. (Diamonds are a 10 - the highest.) Due to their extreme hardness, Tungsten Rings will hold their shape and shine longer than any ring on the market.

What metals Cannot be welded? ›

What Are Metals That Cannot Be Welded?
  • Titanium and steel.
  • Aluminum and copper.
  • Aluminum and stainless steel.
  • Aluminum and carbon steel.
May 19, 2020

What is stronger than US steel? ›

Spider silk is five times stronger than steel—now, scientists know why | Science | AAAS.

Which metal is stronger than gold? ›

Hence, platinum is stronger than gold.

Which is denser osmium or diamond? ›

Osmium has the highest density among chemical elements, being more than 6 times denser than diamonds with 22.6 gcm−3 versus 3.52 gcm−3.

Is osmium heavier than diamond? ›

Diamond is also a light material whose atoms are covalently bonded and arrayed in a cubic structure, whereas osmium is heavy, metallic, and has hexagonally organized atoms. Cynn thinks researchers should now take a closer look at metals and other materials to see what properties they may have missed.

What is the heaviest material known to man? ›

Osmium is the most dense metal, it's twice as dense as lead. Two cubic feet of osmium weighs about the same as a small car. The heaviest naturally occurring element is plutonium measured by the mass of the element but the density is much lower than Osmium.

Is osmium rarer than gold? ›

INDIVIDUALITY Osmium is 1,500 times rarer than gold, has 10 times higher purity and is also about 30 times more valuable.

What metal is heavier than gold? ›

Tungsten: One Of The Heaviest Metals & A Hard Act To Follow.

Is uranium heavier than gold? ›

Did you know that uranium is the heaviest naturally-occurring metal? It is more than 40 times heavier than lead and nine times heavier than gold. The element has an atomic number of 92 and an atomic weight of 238.056.

Can a hammer break a diamond? ›

While there may not be many naturally-occurring materials out there that are stronger than diamonds, certain man-made metals like tungsten and steel have a higher tensile strength. That means a direct hit with an ordinary hammer can absolutely break a diamond.

Can you eat osmium? ›

Routes of exposure Osmium tetroxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or if it comes in contact with the eyes or skin. It can also affect the body if it is swallowed. Effects of overexposure Exposure to osmium tetroxide may cause severe eye damage accompanied by irritation with tearing.

What can destroy osmium? ›

Osmium is uneffected by water and acids, but dissolves with molten alkalis.

What is hardest metal on earth? ›

  • While there are several parameters for categorizing metals in terms of hardness, chromium (687-6500 MPa) is the hardest known metal on the planet.
  • It should not be confused with Tungsten, which has the highest tensile strength of any metal.
  • Tungsten in its pure form is typically brittle and can shatter on impact.

What was the hardest material on earth? ›

Diamond is the hardest known material to date, with a Vickers hardness in the range of 70–150 GPa. Diamond demonstrates both high thermal conductivity and electrically insulating properties, and much attention has been put into finding practical applications of this material.

What is the heaviest liquid? ›

Mercury is the heaviest liquid.

What is the rarest precious metal? ›

Rhodium, iridium and ruthenium are perhaps the rarest, roughly 1/5 as common as platinum. However, the sale price of rhodium is typically a bit less than that of platinum, and the rest are even less expensive because they are simply less useful.

How rare is tungsten? ›

Rare. The abundance of tungsten in the Earth's crust is thought to be about 1.5 parts per million. Tungsten or Wolfram is considered to be one of the more rare elements.

Is rhodium plated jewelry good? ›

Jewelry plated in rhodium is shinier and more durable than other metals. Rhodium plating does not scratch, dent, or corrode and retains its luster.


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